The first inhabitants arrived in Peru some 20,000 years ago.
Several pre-Inca civilizations established themselves along the coast and mountain areas; and have left behind archaeological monuments for posterity.
Some civilizations managed to exercise their power over vast stretches of the South American territory, as the Inca Empire did. The Inca economic system, wealth distribution, artistic expressions and architecture impressed the Spanish conquerors when they arrived.
After the discovery of America and a series of battles between the indigenous people and the conquerors, Peru became a Spanish colony.
A Viceroyalty was established in Peru in 1542. Jose de San Martin declared the independence of Peru in 1821 and in 1824, and Simon Bolivar put an end to the War of Independence.
At present, Peru is a democratic republic with three independent powers ― executive, legislative and judiciary. The highest representative of the executive power is the president, who is elected every five years.
The ruins of an amazing stone settlement are the most beautiful and important legacy of the Incan people.
The site is one of the Seven Wonders of the World and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Machu Picchu is the most impressive and spectacular accomplishment of the Inca Empire.
It is possibly one of the most attractive tourist sites in Peru. It is tucked away on a small hilltop between two Andean peaks at 7,000 feet above sea level and can be accessed by the Perutrail or a hike on the Inca trail.
The fact that it lay hidden to all but a few peasants for hundreds of years adds mystery and intrigue. Never discovered by the Spanish or mentioned in their chronicles, Machu Picchu is the most popular, yet least known of the Inca monuments; the pre cultures of Peru left no written records.
Professor Hiram Bingham from Yale University discovered the ruins buried beneath dense undergrowth in 1911, directed by a Peruvian peasant that knew the area well.
The first sight of Machu Picchu is fascinating and almost magical. The temples, fields, terraces and baths appear to be part of the hillside itself.
The agricultural terracing and aqueducts take advantage of the natural slopes; the lower areas contain buildings occupied by farmers and teachers; and the most important religious areas are located at the crest of the hill, overlooking the lush Urubamba Valley thousands of feet below.
Machu Picchu, the lost city of the Incas, is a mystical, sacred place.
Touched by the clouds, the ruins are one of the most enigmatic and beautiful ancient ruins in the world.
Machu Picchu (meaning «Old Peak” in Quechua, the language spoken by the Incas) was thought to be a sanctuary for the preparation of priestesses and brides for the Inca nobility.
The dramatic setting in a remote area of the Peruvian Andes enhances the shroud of mystery even more. An absolute wonder of human heritage, Machu Picchu will touch your heart and soul in many ways.
The Lord of Sipan
In 1987, the world’s media announced a major archaeological discovery, which was called the Lord of Sipan located in the Lambayeque Region of the Province of Chiclayo, District of Zana, Annex of Sipan, township of Huaca Rajada.
The discovery was an exceptional event, during which shards of pottery, burial urns, tombs and excavations appeared in a very haphazard fashion, as well as some rooms and storehouses that were used by the first inhabitants of the city.
The important thing though, was that this place had been sealed and was still untouched.
The Lord of Sipan was the ethnic prince of the middle valley of Lambayeque, in the period from the 2nd to the 3rd century A.D.
He was invested with triple authority: military, religious and civil.
He exercised this authority from the Governing Complex, which allowed him to scan everything in view, including the sea, the mountains, the desert, the valley and his enormous farmlands.
In the valley we will find a series of mounds that are the remains left by the 1000-year-old Moche civilization. They once housed 15,000 people of potters, goldsmiths, weavers and builders whose position might have been slightly higher than that of the almost 100,000 farmers and farm hands who inhabited the area.
All the original pieces are currently shown at the Treasure of the Lord of Sipan Museum in Lambayeque.